Researchers from the Quantum Electronics Laboratory at Hokkaido University are studying quantum functional devices, with the aim of fabricating "Beyond CMOS" switching devices. To achieve this, the researchers have proposed "quantum cross devices," which have nanoscale contacts. Quantum cross devices utilize a new structure, where the edges of thin metal films are crossed. In this structure, the contact area depends on the film thickness. For example, metal films 1-20 nm thick can, in principle, form a nanoscale contact with size between 1 x 1 and 20 x 20 square nanometers.